C. Paul printed his Treatise on Yoga Philosophy in 1851. Over its historical past, some concepts of Tantra college influenced the Hindu, Bon, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. Elements of Tantric yoga rituals had been adopted by and influenced state features in medieval Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in East and Southeast Asia. By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra.

As the name suggests, the metaphysical foundation for this text is the Indian philosophy termed Sāṃkhya. This atheistic school is mentioned in Kauṭilya’s Arthashastra as one of the three classes of anviksikis (philosophies) together with Yoga and Cārvāka. Yoga accepted the conception of “personal god”, whereas Samkhya developed as a rationalist, non-theistic/atheistic system of Hindu philosophy.

In addition to the Yoga dialogue in above Principal Upanishads, twenty Yoga Upanishads in addition to associated texts such as Yoga Vasistha, composed in 1st and 2nd millennium CE, discuss Yoga methods. The earliest evidence of Yogis and Yoga tradition is discovered in the Keśin hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda, states Karel Werner. Between 200 BCE and 500 CE, philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga started to emerge. The Middle Ages noticed the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Yoga got here to the attention of an informed western public in the mid 19th century together with other matters of Indian philosophy.

Studying Vedic scripture with a guru is central to the Jñāna yoga of Advaita Vedanta. In the trendy period, new forms of Jain meditation have additionally been developed.

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One of the most influential ones is the prekṣā system of Ācārya Mahāprajña which is eclectic and contains the use of mantra, breath management, mudras, bandhas, and so on. The United Nations General Assembly established 21 June as “International Day of Yoga”, celebrated yearly in India and around the world from 2015. On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage. The first Hindu trainer to actively advocate and disseminate features of yoga, not including asanas, to a western viewers, Swami Vivekananda, toured Europe and the United States within the 1890s. Yoga came to the eye of an informed western public within the mid-19th century together with different topics of Indian philosophy.

Sometimes Patanjali’s system is known as Seshvara Samkhya in contradistinction to Kapila’s Nirivara Samkhya. The parallels between Yoga and Samkhya have been so shut that Max Müller says that “the 2 philosophies were in in style parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord.” The Gita consists of 18 chapters and seven hundred shlokas (verses), with each chapter named as a special yoga, thus delineating eighteen different yogas.


Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Mainstream Hinduism’s influence on Jain yoga may be see in Haribhadra’s Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya which outlines an eightfold yoga influenced by Patanjali’s eightfold yoga. In later Hindu scholasticism (12th century onwards), yoga became the name of one of many six orthodox philosophical schools (darsanas), which refers to traditions that settle for the testament of Vedas.

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